Bonds are formed when the valence or outermost electrons of the atoms get combined with the valence electrons of other atom in order to acquire stable configuration. But every atom cannot combine with any atom, in spite there are some basic rules as well as criteria which have to be followed during chemical bonding. Our main topic of concern here is peptide bond. Amino acid as the name indicates a molecule which contains amine group as well as acidic group.
This is bipolar in nature as it has the property of both acid as well as base that is amino group. In peptides there are up to 50 amino acids which combined to form the peptides. Chemical process that takes place in the peptide bond synthesis is easy and very comprehensive. Carboxylic group (-COOH) of one amino acid combined or form bond with the amine group (-NH2) of the next amino acid and it results in liberation of water (H2O) along with formation of amid bond which is called as the peptide bond (-CONH-). In this mechanism water molecule released thus it is also known as dehydration process. Structure of the resulting molecule is as shown in the figure:
Formation of peptide bond
Peptide bond exists in planer structure as it has got the features of partial double bond due to which rotation of the atoms or group across the bond is not possible. This peptide bond can easily be synthesized in laboratories. And the process of synthesis also involves the condensation due to release of water molecule during the process. This is all about chemistry of the peptide bond. Now if we see the biological aspect of the peptide synthesis then it can be summarised as given.
Ribosomes are essential organelles in our cells. These perform the task to synthesize protein in the cells. Peptide synthesis is one of the main functions of ribosomes. Peptides are very useful as they exhibit many therapeutic uses. Peptides have great range of applications in the pharmaceutical field. Hence these are easily available and can be synthesized by assessable methods so these are more in demand. Peptides has significant role in the process of digestion as these catalyzed the complex compounds in to simpler one. Metabolism of the peptide in the body is rapid thus these produce least side effects in the body. Due to enormous application in clinical area peptides are always in demand.